Transferring files between hosting providers

January 8, 2009

I recently upgraded my hosting provider to DreamHost on the advice of a co-worker. The reasons for the move are many, but the topic of this article is how I am to move the hundreds of files I host from one server to the other.

The problem

I knew there was no way I am going to torment myself by compressing, downloading, uploading and un-compressing the files. So what other options did I have? I thought about using ftp to transfer files directly between servers, and even plugged out a little automated bash script to handle this. I quickly realized the fact that ftp doesn’t work for folder structures, and unless I want to list, recurse, and create directories then this option would not suffice.

The solution

So after looking around for a bit I discovered an old friend wget. Unlike ftp, wget not only usese recursion for the folder structures, but it accurately recreates them on the local machine. In this case local refers to the server running wget, not my wimpy desktop. If you haven’t realized yet I should state for the record, DreamHost provides full shell access, which you’ll need. Otherwise you’ll need to use some other means.


If the remote and local server provide for it you can use

rsync -av /source/ user@server:/dest/

to copy all the files to a remote server. But that’s for another article perhaps.

The attack plan

In order to keep my sanity in check I decided a staged attack.  I would limit each run of wget to one parent directory on my old server. The folders will all be placed in a subdirectory of my new server which I can then roll out by using standard ‘nix commands like mv and cp. I also decided to provide some means of record, so I captured all output into a log. That said I don’t want to be in the dark about where the progress stands, so I used another old standby ‘nix command, tee,  to split output to the screen and log. Ok, now that I have level-set with the objectives and tools, let us dig in.

Login to your new Host’s shell using SSH

Yes, one of the reasons I chose DreamHost is the ability to securely access the ‘nix shell using SSH. In my case I chose the Bourne Again shell because it is boss :)

eddie@linux-cv2g:~/Scripts/Dream_host> ssh’s password: XXXXXXXX Linux galactus #1 SMP Thu Oct 9 15:42:59 PDT 2008 x86_64 _ _ __ _ __ | | __ _ | | _ _ ___ / |/ _ | |/ ` |/ __| __| | | / __| | (| | (| | | (| | (_| || || _ _, |_,||_,|_|_|_,|/ |___/ Welcome to

Any malicious and/or unauthorized activity is strictly forbidden. All activity may be logged by DreamHost Web Hosting.

Call wget passing the directory to transfer

Although we could leave the directory off, this would result in wget grabbing everything it can find, which just seemed like a bit too much to deal with for one go. In this example I am grabbing the bulk of my files in the HOSTED_SITES folder.

wget -r -l 10 -I HOSTED_SITES | tee -a ~/transfer_logs/transfer.log

What’s all this then?

wget requires at a minimum the host, a user and a password. But in order to accomplish our task we’re best off to add some switches.

  • The -r switch tells wget to act recursively on the folder structure (grabbing sub-folders and files)
  • The -I switch is followed by a list of directories or files to Include. Alternately you can use -X which, yes you guessed it, is followed by a list of folders or files to eXclude.
  • I added the -l switch after viewing the results on my new host to discover that the recursion only traversed 5 levels. Doh! A quick read through the man pages revealed the level switch which overrides the default of 5. I recommend you scour your deepest path on the old server and set it to that value (add 1 if your also using the host as a directory)
  • If you happen to interrupt the transfer you can use the -c (continue) option to only complete partial or missing files
  • Finally I used my old friend tee, which as it’s name suggests will split the output to the screen and to an alternate output. That alternate in this case is a log file in a directory off my home folder(~). I added the -a switch to append to output. But you can leave it off to overwrite (think of it like » vs. >). .


wget -m | tee -a ~/transfer_logs/transfer.log

What’s all this then?

-m is short for mirror and will use infinite recursing (-l inf) and maintains timestamps.

Grab yourself a drink and wait for the finish

Yeah, its that easy.  Of course as I mentioned above we’re copying the files into a sub-directory which is wget’s default behavior. I opted to stick with it so I can keep my top-level directory cleaner. Since I was excluding some paths, my job finished something like this (with a ton of output between);

Not descending to SITE_DOWN_MESSAGES' as it is excluded/not-included. Not descending to _db_backups’ as it is excluded/not-included. Not descending to cgi' as it is excluded/not-included. Not descending to dotproject’ as it is excluded/not-included. Not descending to php_uploads' as it is excluded/not-included. Not descending to phpmyvisites’ as it is excluded/not-included. Not descending to `stats' as it is excluded/not-included.

FINISHED –05:37:43– Downloaded: 155,152,485 bytes in 12640 files

Nifty tech tag lists from Wouter Beeftink | Page content generated from commit: d197a6c